The Bermudas archipelago, the first British
colony in America, was discovered in 1503 by Spanish
seafarer Juan Bermudez - of which the name. It was
inhabited in 1609 when a British vessel was about to
leave on its way to America. According to
Bermuda is a country located in
the southern part of Africa.
From 1612 the island became a gathering place for
religious and political dissidents. In 1684 the
British administration started and the first
parliament was formed. However, only the plantation
owners had the right to vote.
Agriculture soon disappeared in the 20th century,
and was replaced by tourism, casinos and the
multinational corporations that were attracted by
the light taxation. It is one of the most densely
populated areas in the world with 1000 residents per
year. km2. The residents of this tourist
and tax haven receive only a small share of the
goods. During the prohibition period in the United
States (1919-33), illegal export of rum to the
United States began. Washington has had air and
naval bases on the islands since 1941 and has since
1957 completely replaced the British military
After founding the Bermuda Industrial Federation,
in 1963, workers formed the Progressive Workers'
Party, defending the island's independence and
trying to introduce income tax. The following year,
the right wing founded Bermuda's Unity Party.
In 1968, England offered widespread islands,
administrative independence and the post of prime
minister was awarded the largest party. The election
that year was held in a climate of political and
racial violence. The governor was killed, leading to
intervention by British troops. The unit party won a
In the 1976 election, the result was pretty much
the same, though the Labor Party increased its
number of seats in parliament and continued to
demand unrestricted independence.
Two members of the "Black Cadre" group were
sentenced to death in 1977, accused of participating
in armed anti-colonialist actions. The executions
sparked a wave of protests and once again the
British troops intervened. The Minister of Municipal
Affairs - including racial issues - was forced to
step down, but instead was appointed head of the
Bermuda Regiment, a corps that was very actively
involved in the repression.
The Labor Party - and other more radical
movements - began to gain supporters among the
In 1979, a constitutional conference was convened
in Bermuda. The parties failed to reach agreement on
representation in parliament and on the voting age,
but it was agreed to limit the participation of
foreign voters. The reform came into force in
December of that year.
In 1980 and 1983, the Unity Party again won the
elections, although the opposition increased its
representation in parliament. The dominance of the
unity party delayed the country's independence when
the government pointed out that the majority were
not supporters of independence.
The strategic location of the islands in the
Atlantic explains in part the presence of the
The Unity Party's John Swan was re-elected as
prime minister in 1989 and his party gained 23 seats
in the advisory assembly. In doing so, they
maintained the slim lead to the Labor Party, which
achieved 15 seats; a seat went to the center party
of the National Liberals, while the independent
Environment Party also obtained a seat in
During 1989, unemployment rose by 0.5% and in
1990 by 2%. Employment increased by 3.1% in the
industrial sector. The severe economic downturn
experienced in the United States continued to hurt
tourism in the first months of 1992. London rejected
a plan for territorial independence.
Lord Waddington was appointed Governor-General in
1992. The economic crisis led to the closure of the
French naval base and a cut in staff on the North
American aircraft base.
The intense, illicit drug trafficking in 1993 led
to rising economic crime. In the same year, measures
were taken to control the off-shore activities. The
high population density has also caused a growing
interest in environmental issues.
Irving Pearman was elected Prime Minister after
the October 5, 1993 election. The unity party
retained the majority in parliament, but the Labor
Party continued to record progress, gaining 18 seats
In August, a referendum on independence was held.
The result was negative and the island is a British
After David Saul's resignation in March 1997,
Pamela Gordon took office as prime minister. In June
Thorold Masefield was appointed new governor. In the
November 1998 elections, the Labor Party got 54% of
the vote and 26 seats in parliament, while the Unity
Party had to settle for 44% and 14 seats. The other
parties got less than 1% of the vote and got no
In September 1999, Hurricane Gert hit Bermuda at
a speed of 120 km/h. The extensive rainfall caused
floods, destroyed buildings and infrastructure.
After failing to carry out executions for 22
years, in December 1999, the government abolished
the death penalty.
Governor Masefield left the country on November
28, 2001, after his 4-year term expired. A larger
crowd attended the farewell ceremony. Until the new
governor, Sir John Vereker's arrival in April 2002,
Tim Gurney held the function temporarily.
A constitutional reform in March 2003 reduced the
number of seats in parliament from 40 to 36. In
December, a reform of the Education Act was
implemented, which makes parents responsible for
their children's behavior at school and sets a fine
for violations. The Black Alliance, an organization
working with the rights of the African-American
people, criticized the reform for its discriminatory
content. It is designed to especially hit the
poorest, as it is used only in the public education
system predominantly used by the working class and
by the African-American population.
In September, the worst hurricane in 40 years hit
Bermuda, leaving devastation and chaos in its wake.
Hurricane Fabian reached wind speeds of 200 km/h and
waves at almost 10 m altitude. Hundreds of people
from the low-lying areas had to be evacuated, but 4
died. Trees were toppled and power lines torn down.
Satellite dishes and other equipment at the
Meteorological Institute broke loose and were
flushed into the sea. The houses were built to
withstand hurricanes, but the electricity supply to
25,000 households was cut off and hospitals had to
cope with their own generators.
In March 2004, a colony of 56 exotic snails was
transferred to Regents Park Zoo in London to
preserve the endangered species. The population of
snails has reached a critical level due to snakes
and ants. Bermuda's Natural History Museum sought
the help of experts in London when it was found that
the population had reached a critical level. The
snails come back to Bermuda when the livelihoods
have been restored and the population has grown.
In a December 2005 report, the Pan-American
Health Organization said that although HIV and AIDS
are extremely prevalent in the Caribbean, there are
"small lights on the horizon." It is among other
things the case in Bermuda, where, for the first
time since the discovery of the virus, a reduction
in the number of new cases has been observed.
Ewart Brown was appointed Prime Minister in
October 2006. At the same time he assumed the post
of Minister of Tourism and Transport. He is from the
Progressive Labor Party and declared in June 2007
that the theme of independence will again be
relevant in the 2009 election campaign. with Britain
it does not.
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In October 2008, a North American judge ordered
17 Chinese prisoners released from the US
concentration camp in Guantanamo. There was no
evidence that they were involved in terrorist acts.
However, the United States could not send the
Chinese to China, as the Uighurs would also face
persecution there. Brown now made a statement that a
number of them should be welcome in Bermuda, where
they would be granted citizenship. The statement
provoked Britain who believed it was superior to
such decisions and also provoked the country's
opposition. In June 2009, the United States sent 4
Uyghurs to Bermuda to Britain's great regret. In
2013, they were still in Bermuda, but with
significant problems as they were registered as
stateless, unable to travel,
In December 2012, the PLP who had otherwise ruled
Bermuda for 14 years lost the election to the
conservative One Bermuda Alliance (OBA). The OBA
received 51.7% of the vote. OBA leader Craig
Cannonier became new prime minister.
In May 2014, Cannonier had to withdraw from the
Prime Minister's post. The media had revealed that
his party in 2012 received US $ 300,000 in support
from financier Nathan Landow. Landow wanted to build
casinos in Bermuda. It was banned and the ban was
confirmed by several referendums, but after the
support of Landow, Cannonier declared that he
thought parliament should decide the matter. Michael
Dunkley assumed the post of prime minister and at
the same time took over Cannonier's post as chairman
of the One Bermuda Alliance government party.
One Bermuda Alliance (OBA) lost its majority in
parliament when two of its members in March 2017
signed out and became independent. The government
therefore had to print new elections. The July
election was a major defeat for the government as
the OBA declined from 19 to 12 seats. The PLP, on
the other hand, went 7 terms from 17 to 24. The
defeat of the OBA forced Dunkley to step down as
prime minister and at the same time resigned as
chairman of his party. PLP formed government with
Edward David Burt as prime minister.