In November 1974, according to remzfamily, Tombalbaye decided to re-establish close cooperation with France. But a military putsch overthrew the civilian regime in 1975, killing Tombalbaye and handing power to Félix Malloum. He initiated a policy of national reconciliation, assigning to Hissène Habré (head of the Northern Armed Forces, which had split from Frolinat) the post of prime minister. War broke out in the country between the opposing factions and in 1979 power was assumed by a provisional government of national union, chaired by Goukouni Oueddei. In 1980 the tension between the different groups provoked bitter clashes between the men of Habré and those of Goukouni, the latter supporters of a policy of cooperation with Libya that Habré rejected. In June 1980 the Northern Armed Forces captured the presidential building complex in N’djamena, but on June 16 of the same year news of the conclusion of a treaty between Chad and Libya (which had supported the forces led by Goukouni ). Habré, having taken refuge abroad, reorganized his forces and launched a violent counter-offensive; in June 1982 he was able to return to N’djamena. Goukouni took refuge in Algeria and in October Habré assumed the presidency of the Republic; in 1983 his government was recognized by the OUA. In 1984 the country was split in two along the 16th parallel line: the northern part was ruled by the Libyan-backed Goukouni government of national union (GUNT), the southern part was controlled by the (internationally recognized) Habré government, supported by Libya. parà French and then also from the United States. Having crossed the line of the 16th parallel in 1986, Habré progressively reconquered the whole north of the country; in September 1987 a ceasefire was finally declared. In April 1989, after a period of apparent political unity, an attempted coup d’état led by the Minister of the Interior, the former commander of the Armed Forces and the advisor to the head of state, Idriss Déby, was thwarted., who took refuge in Libya. The latter, having given birth to a new opposition movement in Sudan, managed to organize a robust guerrilla activity in the following months: by taking root in ethnic rivalries and between power groups, as well as exploiting Libyan weapons and advisors, it was able to strengthen itself up to conquer N’djamena between 1 and 2 December 1990, in the indifference of the French contingent, who instead intervened in 1983 and 1987 in defense of the government forces.
Fled Habré, Déby, leader of the Patriotic Movement of Salvation (MPS), assumed power, declared itself in favor of the introduction of multi-partyism and democratic reforms, while dissolving Parliament and suspending the Constitution desired by the previous regime (December 1989). However, the democratization process encountered serious obstacles in the persistence of ethnic conflicts, with bloody guerilla actions unleashed by rebels loyal to deposed President Habré. The transition period towards a multi-party democracy, which began in the country in November 1993 and was scheduled to expire in April 1995, was extended for the second time by a year by the Transitional Superior Council (CST), confirming the numerous difficulties involved. in the process of democratization of the country.
The CST subsequently appointed a new prime minister: Koibla Djimasta. In June 1996 the long-awaited presidential elections took place, made possible also thanks to the decisive support of France. Déby got about 44% of the votes in the first round and the following month, with about 70% of the votes, he was elected president. With the legislative elections, held in January-February 1997 and won by the MPS, the first phase of the country’s difficult start towards democracy seemed to be over. The slow process of democratic renewal was, however, undermined by the continuous armed clashes with the opposition groups to the government. In May 1998 the government and rebel forces signed an agreement, but a year later, the clashes between the government forces and the troops of the Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad (MDJT) resumed in the northern region and only in July 1999 the government managed to put an end to the fighting, signing a reconciliation agreement with the armed opposition group. In May 2001, Déby was re-elected president in the first round in a climate made turbulent by suspicions of fraud. In 2004, due to the war in Darfur (Sudan) over 95,000 refugees from this region invaded Chad, raising serious security and economic problems. In June 2005 a referendum for the modification of the Constitution regarding the presidential mandate, allowed Déby to present himself a third time, thanks also to the withdrawal of the opposition from the electoral competition, and reconfirm himself as president (2006). Due to the war in Darfur and the presence of rebel forces on the border between Chad and Sudan, relations between the two states became increasingly tense. In May 2007, President Déby and Sudanese President Bashir signed a peace agreement that was supposed to guarantee mutual respect for territorial sovereignty. In February 2011, the legislative elections were held, won by the coalition formed by the party of President Déby and his allies.