The Allianz CiU, which he led, was able to regain the majority, but suffered significant losses. Instead of 62, it received only 50 of the 135 parliamentary seats. Nevertheless, Mas stuck to the plan to hold a referendum on the independence of the region. On November 9, 2014, in a legally non-binding, symbolic referendum, according to topb2bwebsites, over 80% of the participants spoke out in favor of secession from Spain. In the early regional elections in Catalonia on September 20, 2015, the separatist forces won an absolute majority of the seats. A resolution passed by the newly elected parliament to initiate the independence process was declared illegal by the Spanish Constitutional Court on November 11, 2015.
The Catalonia crisis escalated in 2017 and led to the worst internal political upheaval since the attempted coup in 1981. On October 1, 2017, Catalonia held a referendum on independence against the resistance of the central government and despite a ban by the Constitutional Court. According to the regional government there, around 42% of those eligible to vote took part in the vote, of which around 90% were in favor of independence. The referendum was accompanied by a police operation overshadowed by acts of violence aimed at preventing the vote. As a result, there were protest demonstrations and strike actions by pro-independence supporters, but also large-scale demonstrations by opponents of independence. After the Catalan Parliament voted for independence on October 27, 2017, the Spanish Senate approved the Spanish government’s motion to apply Article 155 of the Spanish Constitution, thereby enabling the Catalan government to be overthrown, the Catalan parliament to be disempowered and new elections to be held in Catalonia. The separatist forces were able to defend their absolute majority in the new elections to the Catalan parliament on December 21, 2017. After approval by the central government, a new regional government could be established on June 2nd, 2018 under the president elected on May 14th The separatist forces were able to defend their absolute majority in the new elections to the Catalan parliament on December 21, 2017. After approval by the central government, a new regional government could be established on June 2nd, 2018 under the president elected on May 14th The separatist forces were able to defend their absolute majority in the new elections to the Catalan parliament on December 21, 2017. After approval by the central government, a new regional government could be established on June 2nd, 2018 under the president elected on May 14th Joaquim “Qim” Torra i Pla take up their official duties. This also ended the direct control by the Spanish government.
Other Spanish regions are also relying on more autonomy. The new Andalusian Statute of Autonomy was passed on May 2nd, 2006 in the regional parliament of Seville.
Foreign and Security Policy in the 21st Century
In international diplomacy, Spain plays an important role as a mediator between Latin America and the EU (Ibero-American summit), and it also represents the interests of the southern and eastern Mediterranean countries in the EU. In July 2002, a dispute broke out between Morocco and Spain over the uninhabited rocky island of Perejil (Parsley Island) off the Moroccan coast, which they had claimed (expulsion of Moroccan soldiers who had recently landed on the island by the Spanish military); Morocco now officially raised claims to the Spanish exclaves Ceuta and Melilla. In December 2003, Spain and Morocco chaired a summit meeting in Marrakech between Aznar and King Mohammed VI. a fresh start in relations between the two countries (including agreement on Spanish financial aid and cooperation in tackling illegal immigration from the north-west African country).
In 2005, Spain had legalized around 710,000 illegal refugees in the country. In October 2005, the number of African refugees attempting to cross the border fences of the Melilla and Ceuta exclaves rose sharply. Contrary to previous practice, Spain did not transfer them to the European continent, but instead pushed them back to Morocco. On May 19, 2006 the government approved the »Plan Africa« to curb the influx of black African refugees to the Canary Islands; there, in spring 2006, the local government had to declare a »national emergency«. In the same year Spain concluded return agreements, inter alia. with Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, Morocco, Algeria and Guinea-Bissau in order to prevent the illegal influx. The visit of the Spanish royal couple in Ceuta and Melilla on November 6thOccupied Western Sahara. After the closure of the route across the Western Balkans, the influx of refugees from Africa increased again in 2017.
In the Iraq conflict (2002-04), the Aznar government initially supported US politics (accompanied by strong popular protests); After the PSOE’s surprising election victory in March 2004, however, the newly elected Prime Minister Zapatero withdrew the Spanish troops from Iraq. Spain was militarily involved, inter alia. also in Afghanistan. The country is also active in various UN peace missions. From January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2016, Spain was a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council.
On July 15, 2008, Spain ratified the Treaty of Lisbon.