Italy Catholic Reconstruction and State Reconstruction – The Counter-Reformation Part I

By | February 20, 2022

We are in the midst of the counter-reformation or, rather, of the counter-revolution; in the era of Catholic reform to curb the Protestant revolution. A fact of Christianity and catholicity is the counter-reform or counter-revolution: and the fact finds a confirmation in what had happened in the century. XIII, when equally the most lively religiosity had created reformist currents in the heretical sense and reformist currents in the orthodox sense: currents close and sometimes confused at first, before they met a watershed line and diverged. But it has in Italy one of its living centers, perhaps the greatest center, and, starting not only from the papacy and the hierarchy, but from the religious conscience of the Italian people or, in any case, finding its intimate correspondence in the spirit of the people, reflects some characters of the people themselves, it is the history of the Italian people. As already in the century. XIII, even now the hierarchy and papacy take the field. The long and complicated wars are coming to an end; the papacy always appears to be more religious than political. The contrast between Catholics and Protestants, especially bitter beyond the Alps, has rekindled the fervor of Catholics where Protestantism has not been fully victorious. They have turned more fervently towards Rome; and, rather than considering the pope as any Italian prince, they now consider him rather as head of the Church and universal pastor. After centuries of disarray, either because of the Avignonese servitude, or because of the schism and other prolonged absences from his natural seat, or because of his thoughts entirely turned to the State of the Church, or for the new idols of the classical world put on the altars, or for the necessary participation in the great politics of Europe centered on Italy; the Church and the papacy re-enter their path, reestablish those living links with the faithful that had largely been broken, resume with new energy the ancient work of internal organization, of differentiating the cleric from the laity, of centralization in Rome, etc., they hint at regaining that credit and that political and financial power that they had long lost (see counter-reform). In fact, with the century. XVI, an enormous mass of landed wealth is gathered again in the hands of the churches, especially in the Spanish Milanese, in the kingdom of Naples, in Tuscany: a real dead man, by now, in times of advanced monetary economy and mobile wealth which is the sixteenth century and the subsequent age. And there are, in the popes of this time, accents reminiscent of those of the popes from the century. XI to XIII, from Gregory VII to Boniface VIII. A doctrine of the absolute power of the papacy, which can demand from governments the persecution of heresies and respect for ecclesiastical freedoms. But the old doctrine is reconciled with new demands and equips itself with new weapons, and, as the theory of popular sovereignty welcomes and develops, it appropriates the new culture, adapting it to itself.

Faced with Catholic action, Italian followers and sympathizers of Protestantism, as they were variously disposed towards Catholic Rome, so they followed a different path. Not a few, violently shocked, distanced themselves even further from the Church, suffered persecution, and some were tortured, fled out of Italy to already Protestant countries, immersed themselves even more in Protestantism.

According to THEMEPARKTOUR.COM, this exodus, which began around 1530, which grew in the following twenty years, reached high proportions with 1555, that is, with Paul IV. Almost every city counted its refugees. Some very many, like Lucca. They already had relations or points of support outside Italy; much of their wealth is liquid and mobile. Therefore it is not difficult, for many, to escape and settle elsewhere, in France, in the Netherlands, in Poland, in Hungary, in Switzerland: especially in Switzerland and in Geneva, which from afar shone in the eyes of the innovators as the seat of a more true Christianity, like the new Rome. There, either they joined the various Protestant churches, or, impatient, they developed their own doctrines. Suffice it to recall the Mantuan Stancaro, the Saluzzese Blandrata, the Socini and the Ochino of Siena, active especially in Poland. But most of these Italians, or that they did not want to face penecutions or that they had only superficial and sentimental contacts with Lutheranism and Calvinism, and were gradually satisfied with the reforming effort of the Church and the high spirituality of certain popes and the renewed world prestige of the papacy; most of them rejoined the ranks of Roman orthodoxy, with greater or lesser sincerity and conviction. Certainly we do not know which direction some of those streams of lively religiosity, some of those ardent reformists, would have followed if abandoned to their impulse. We do not know if that philosophy of the Renaissance, which had some of its highest advocates in the 16th century, would have, as its intimate logic led it, led to an explicit denial, as well as of the philosophy of the previous age, which was the philosophy of Church, also of the Church itself. But having looked at the problem as a whole, we must admit that the Roman pontificate, in the fight against Protestantism, moved in the direction marked by the spirit of the Italian people. Here lacked that multiplicity of reasons and impulses, including social, political, rational ones, which in Germany, as they had led to a simple dogmatic rebellion, so later gave victory to Protestantism. Indeed those reasons and those impulses that acted positively there, in Italy acted negatively, that is, against Protestantism. Saturated in Germany with all the elements of national life, the protest took on a national and German character which, if given strength among Germans and Germanic peoples, was a cause of weakness among other peoples, especially among Italians. Thus, religiously revolutionary seeds that were in the philosophy of the Renaissance did not act in the religious and church fields: philosophy remained. Philosophy and religion, almost two distinct ideal spheres. Strength of Italian life or weakness? A living need for religious unity, which Protestant countries no longer knew? Is it instinctive to feel and find Italians in the Church and in Catholicism as in their own home, created by them and strongly influenced by themselves? Of course, this philosophy, regardless of its possible logical outlets, then explicitly justified the opposition of Italian philosophers, and Italians in general, to Protestantism, in which they saw a cause of social disintegration, while religion had to give unity, a cause of weakening of the human and individual effort towards salvation.

Italy Catholic Reconstruction 1