Iaşi [ yes ʃ j], German Jassy, capital of the district of the same name, northeast Romania, near the border with Moldova, on Bahlui, (2011) 290 400 residents.
Most important economic, cultural and scientific center of the Moldova region; Seat of a Romanian Orthodox metropolitan and a Catholic bishop; oldest university in Romania (founded in 1860), TH, agricultural and medical-pharmaceutical university, conservatory, location of the Romanian Academy with several research institutes, state archive, museums, etc. for art, history, folklore and natural history, opera (since 1956). Of economic importance are rail vehicle, agricultural machinery and industrial plant construction, pharmaceutical, plastics processing, ceramic, furniture, textile, clothing and food industries; Transport hub, airport.
According to Animalerts, the Church of St. Nicholas, built from 1491 as a foundation by Prince Stephan the Great, was heavily restored in 1890–1904. The Aroneanu Church, founded by Prince Aron 1593, is a three-icon building with a three-dimensional facade structure, which replaced the exterior wall painting that was previously preferred in the Vltava. The Church of the Three Hierarchs (»Trei Ierarhi«, 1639) with rich stone ornamentation on the outer walls combines Moldavian building tradition (three-corner complex), Wallachian (Byzantine-influenced) wall and dome structure, Islamic ornamentation and elements of Transylvanian Gothic. The heyday of Moldovan architecture in the late 16th and 17th centuries came from several monasteries that already show influences from the Polish Baroque: Golia (1650–60, with eight domes), Cetățuia (1669–72; with Turkish bath; one of the few complete preserved facilities), Frumoasa (founded at the end of the 16th century, later radical renovations), Galata (1582/83); Baranovși Voda Church (1627; with a graceful portico). Some boyar courts from the 17th century have also been preserved. The classicist buildings since the beginning of the 19th century (partly based on the Russian model) include the Spiridon Church (1804/05), the new construction of the Frumoasa monastery church (1836–41) with a representative west facade, and the Orthodox cathedral (1833–86). The Kulturpalast (1905-07) is neo-Gothic. New residential, corporate and industrial buildings have been built since 1945.
Iași goes back to a 7th century settlement that was destroyed by the Mongols in 1242; First mentioned in a document in 1408. Raised the capital of the Vltava by Hospodar Alexandru Lăpuşneanu in 1565, Iaşi has been a cultural center since the middle of the 17th century, where the first theater performance in Romanian took place in 1816, a national theater in 1846 and the first Romanian university was founded in 1860; 1859–62 capital of the united Danube principalities.
The Peace of Jassy ended the Russo-Turkish War 1787–92 on January 9, 1792.
Timişoara [timi ʃ ara], German Timisoara, Hungarian Temesvár [ tεmε ʃ va ː r], capital of the district Timis, Romania, in the fertile Banat plain at the southeastern edge of the Alfölds, 90 m above sea level, at the starting Timişoara navigable and canalised Bega, (2011) 319 300 residents, strong Hungarian population.
Cultural and economic center of the Banat and once the center of the Banat Swabians; Seat of a Catholic and Reformed bishop as well as a Romanian Orthodox and Serbian Orthodox metropolitan; University, TU, medical and agricultural university, observatory, Banat Museum (folklore open-air museum), regional museum, national theater (with German and Hungarian programs), opera house and philharmonic orchestra; Trade and industrial center, including Mechanical engineering, automotive supplier, wood processing, pharmaceutical, ceramic, leather, textile and food industry, IT industry; Transport hub, international airport.
Huniade Castle (14th – 15th centuries, restored in 1856, now a museum); Catholic cathedral (built 1736–54 according to plans by J. E. Fischer von Erlach), nearby a baroque plague column; Serbian Cathedral (1745–48, facade 1791); Old town house (1731–34); Prince Eugene’s Palace (18th century); orthodox cathedral (20th century); large parks.
Timișoara, located on the site of Dacian and Roman settlements, was fortified as early as the Migration Period and has been attested as an administrative center since the 12th century; In the 14th century it was temporarily the residence of the Hungarian kings, since 1552 under Ottoman rule it was the capital of the Paschalik of the same name. After the liberation by Prince Eugene of Savoy-Carignan (1716), Timișoara came to Austria (or Hungary) and became the seat of the provincial administration of the Temescher Banat; next to Serbs and Romanians, German colonists were settled (Banat Swabians). The fortress, which was built in 1723–65, was preserved in parts. In 1919/20 Timișoara came to Romania.
A mass demonstration bloodily suppressed by the army and the Romanian secret police Securitate on December 16, 1989 in Timișoara, in which Romanians, in particular, members of the Romanian Germans and Romanian-Hungarians took part, encompassed all of Romania in the following days and led to the overthrow of dictator N. Ceaușescu (until December 22nd: 73 dead in Timișoara).
Cluj-Napoca [klu ʒ na poka], German Cluj, Hungarian Kolozsvár [ kolo ʒ va ː r] until 1974 Cluj, capital of the district of Cluj, Romania m, in northwestern Transylvania, 345 above sea level, on the eastern edge of the West Transylvanian Mountains, on Little Szamos, (2011) 324 600 residents, larger Hungarian population.
Cultural center of Hungarians living in Romania; Seat of a Romanian Orthodox, a Reformed and a Unitarian bishop; University (founded in 1872), Technical University, Veterinary and Agricultural University, Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Art School, Conservatory, Branch of the Romanian Academy, Hygiene Institute; zoological museum, museums of history and folklore of Transylvania, art museum, several theaters, philharmonic orchestra, two operas; Botanical Garden. Industrial center with vehicle, rail vehicle and industrial plant construction, automotive supplier, electrotechnical, pharmaceutical, furniture, shoe, textile, clothing and food industry, exhibition center; Transport hub, international airport.
The most important architectural monument of the Middle Ages is the Gothic Church of St. Michael, a four-bay, three-aisled hall church (begun in 1349, Renaissance portal on the sacristy from 1528). The former Minorite Church, now the Reformed Church, was founded in 1486 under the Hungarian King Matthias I Corvinus whose late Gothic birthplace (15th century) is now a museum. The Reformed Church (completed in 1494, restored in the 17th century) is the largest late Gothic hall church in Transylvania (Renaissance pulpit from 1646). Remains of the city fortifications from the 15th century with a tailor’s bastion (originally 1475, current state from 1629) have also been preserved. The town hall was built between the 16th and 18th centuries. Century. The earliest Transylvanian baroque building is the former Jesuit church (1718–24). The art museum is now located in the late baroque Bánffy Palace (1774–85). The National Theater (1903) and the Orthodox Cathedral (1923–33) take up historicist forms.
Near the Roman military camp Napoca, which was built in a Dacian settlement, was built around the county castle of Klausenburg (Castrum Clus) in the 12th centurya predominantly German settlement (royal-Hungarian free town since 1405), which developed into the political, cultural and economic center of Transylvania even under Turkish rule (since 1541). Since 1569 the seat of the state parliament of the Principality of Transylvania, Cluj was predominantly Reformed-Unitarian and thus Magyarized in the 16th century (center of the Transylvanian Magyars until 1945). 1790–1848 and 1861–67, Cluj was the capital of the Crown Land of Transylvania. After the annexation to Romania (December 1, 1918), confirmed in the Treaty of Trianon (1920), Cluj-Napoca was initially assigned to Hungary again in the Second Vienna Arbitration (1940-44), and finally it was retained in the Peace of Paris (1947) confirmed in Romania.