Agriculture in Southeast Asia is the source of income for the majority of the rural population, and rice planting is the agricultural crop that stands out the most in this region. Southeast Asia is a subcontinent of Asia that covers an area of 4.5 million km². There are eleven countries in this area: Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, Philippines and East Timor.
This territorial portion of Asia is bathed by two oceans, the Indian and the Pacific. Southeast Asia is distinguished in: countries located in continental areas and countries located in island areas, among which we can mention: Indonesia and the Philippines, both are large archipelagos.
The Southeast Asia region is home to a large population, with approximately 536 million inhabitants. Of this total, most live in rural areas, working in agriculture. The agricultural crop that stands out the most is rice planting (rice growing), which is the basis of the diet of a large part of the population of Asian countries.
Only rice producers in Southeast Asia account for about 26% of production on a global scale, the largest producer in that region is Indonesia. Rice production in Indonesia is second only to China and India, which are the two largest producers in the world.
Rice farming is developed in Southeast Asia in a traditional way and the work is carried out by the family with the help of animals, and all the work, from planting to harvest, is done manually. The countries of Southeast Asia are not restricted to producing only rice, other agricultural crops are also cultivated, such as bananas, rubber, sugar cane and coconut, in addition to animal husbandry, such as cattle and swine.
You can try Abbreviation Finder to get a complete list of initials and acronyms with Asia.
If you consider pursing a law degree and decide to study in Asia, then you’ve come to the right place. Here, we provide rankings for all law schools in Asia based on alumni reviews, graduate employment rate, faculty and student ratio, admissions acceptance rates, etc. In addition to the Asian rankings, you can also see where each school is ranked world wide.
Among 44 top ranked law schools in Asia, 14 are found in China Mainland (Peking University, Tsinghua University, Fudan University, Remin University of China, etc), 3 in Hong Kong (University of Hong Kong, Chinese University of Hong Kong, and City University of Hong Kong), and 4 in Taiwan (National Taiwan University, National Chiao Tung University, National Chengchi University, and National Tsing Hua University). The remaining 23 top law schools are from Israel, Japan, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand respectively.
For detailed rankings, please see the following table.
|Asia Rankings||World Rankings||Law School||Nation|
|1||13||National University of Singapore (NUS)||Singapore|
|2||18||The University of Hong Kong||Hong Kong SAR|
|3||21||The University of Tokyo||Japan|
|4||23||Peking University||China (Mainland)|
|5||28||Tsinghua University||China (Mainland)|
|6||34||Seoul National University||South Korea|
|7||39||The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK)||Hong Kong SAR|
|9||47||National Taiwan University (NTU)||Taiwan|
|10||54||City University of Hong Kong||Hong Kong SAR|
|11||58||Fudan University||China (Mainland)|
|12||60||Korea University||South Korea|
|13||63||Renmin (People’s) University of China||China (Mainland)|
|14||67||Shanghai Jiao Tong University||China (Mainland)|
|15||98||Wuhan University||China (Mainland)|
|16||99||Yonsei University||South Korea|
|17||100||Zhejiang University||China (Mainland)|
|18||102||China University of Political Science and Law||China (Mainland)|
|19||106||The Hebrew University of Jerusalem||Israel|
|21||111||Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU)||Singapore|
|22||112||National Chiao Tung University||Taiwan|
|24||119||Singapore Management University||Singapore|
|25||132||Universiti Malaya (UM)||Malaysia|
|26||152||Beijing Normal University||China (Mainland)|
|28||158||Hanyang University||South Korea|
|30||160||Nanjing University||China (Mainland)|
|31||161||National Chengchi University||Taiwan|
|32||168||Sun Yat-sen University||China (Mainland)|
|33||169||Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU)||South Korea|
|34||170||Tel Aviv University||Israel|
|37||211||Kyung Hee University||South Korea|
|38||216||National Tsing Hua University||Taiwan|
|39||239||Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)||Malaysia|
|40||251||Xiamen University||China (Mainland)|
|41||252||Al-Farabi Kazakh National University||Kazakhstan|
|42||264||Jilin University||China (Mainland)|
|43||270||Shanghai University||China (Mainland)|
|44||297||University of the Philippines||Philippines|
*According to Countryaah, Taiwan is not an independent nation, but a part of China.
Nuclear power in Pakistan
Pakistan is an atomic power, with its own nuclear weapons, but civilian utilization of nuclear energy contributes little to the country’s energy supply. Only 5.5 per cent of the country’s electricity production is based on nuclear power.
As Pakistan has refrained from signing the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the country has been excluded from international trade in materials and equipment that is important for the establishment and operation of nuclear power plants. This has hampered the development of nuclear power for civilian purposes.
Electricity supply in Pakistan
In 2015, the production of electrical energy was 111 TWh. 41 TWh (37 per cent) of the production was based on oil, 29 TWh (26 per cent) came from gas power plants and 34 TWh (30.6 per cent) was hydropower. Nuclear power contributed 6.1 TWh (5.5 per cent). The consumption per capita is about 450 kWh, but around 25 per cent of the population does not have access to electricity. A strong increase in electricity consumption is expected in the years ahead.
Total installed capacity is 25 GW e, but often a large part of the power plants are out of operation. The country has five nuclear reactors, which together make up 1.3 GW e.
Responsibility for all nuclear power in Pakistan lies with the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, PAEC (The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission).
Pakistan’s first nuclear power plant came into operation in 1971. The reactor is a Canadian heavy water reactor designed for a capacity of 125 MW e (net). Due to high age, in practice, the capacity has been reduced to 90 MW e, and this reactor is now being closed down. The power plant is called Karachi, but is also referred to as KANUPP, which stands for Karachi Nuclear Power Plant. The resort is located in Sindh province, 25 km west of the city of Karachi. Later, after the year 2000, four new reactors have been built at Chashma nuclear power plant, located in the north of the country in Punjabof Venice. Chashma Power Plant is also referred to as the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant. As of 2018, the nuclear power plants in Pakistan have a total output of 1320 MW e.
Nuclear reactors in operation
|Karachi 1||Can you||Sindh||90||1971||?|
Pakistan’s electricity supply is largely dependent on oil. In order to reduce this dependence and curb the high power costs that this entails, the country has long aimed to increase nuclear power generation. However, the implementation of this goal has been problematic as long as the country does not want to sign the Non-Proliferation Agreement.
Despite the fact that Pakistan is for that reason excluded from international trade in nuclear equipment, China has welcomed cooperation with the country. In 2008, a plan was announced to build two new reactors at the Chashma power plant. The reactors were supplied and mainly financed by China. The work started in 2011 and was completed in 2017. The international body Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), which oversees the boycott of nuclear material sales to Pakistan, had raised objections to this project. China itself has joined NSG, but it was only in 2004, after the contract for reactor 1 and 2 was signed. China therefore argued that reactors 3 and 4 were merely a technical continuation of 1 and 2.
In 2015, a new agreement was signed with China on the construction of two new reactors in the Karachi power plant. The choice of reactor was ultimately Hualong 1, which is China’s new reactor intended for export. The construction work is expected to take six years. Considering that Pakistan cannot buy uranium on the open market, an agreement has also been signed with China on the supply of nuclear fuel. The agreement ensures the supply of fuel throughout the life of the power plant, which is specified to be 60 years. This delivery will also be controversial, based on the guidelines that apply under NSG.
An agreement has also been entered into for the construction of a fifth reactor at the Chasma power plant, but the time for construction is yet to be determined.
Nuclear reactors under development
|Karachi 2||Hualong 1||1161||2015||2021|
|Karachi 3||Hualong 1||1161||2016||2022|
|Chasma 5||Hualong 1||1161||?||?|
In order to meet the expected increase in electricity consumption, Pakistan has put forward a strategy to further develop its nuclear power. In 2014, PAEC announced plans to build a further five reactors, each with a capacity of 1100 MW e, so that the capacity for nuclear power by 2030 will be around 9 GW e.