The Bermudas archipelago, the first British colony in America, was discovered in 1503 by Spanish seafarer Juan Bermudez – of which the name. It was inhabited in 1609 when a British vessel was about to leave on its way to America. According to Countryaah, Bermuda is a country located in the southern part of Africa.
From 1612 the island became a gathering place for religious and political dissidents. In 1684 the British administration started and the first parliament was formed. However, only the plantation owners had the right to vote.
Agriculture soon disappeared in the 20th century, and was replaced by tourism, casinos and the multinational corporations that were attracted by the light taxation. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world with 1000 residents per year. km2. The residents of this tourist and tax haven receive only a small share of the goods. During the prohibition period in the United States (1919-33), illegal export of rum to the United States began. Washington has had air and naval bases on the islands since 1941 and has since 1957 completely replaced the British military presence.
After founding the Bermuda Industrial Federation, in 1963, workers formed the Progressive Workers’ Party, defending the island’s independence and trying to introduce income tax. The following year, the right wing founded Bermuda’s Unity Party.
In 1968, England offered widespread islands, administrative independence and the post of prime minister was awarded the largest party. The election that year was held in a climate of political and racial violence. The governor was killed, leading to intervention by British troops. The unit party won a comfortable victory.
In the 1976 election, the result was pretty much the same, though the Labor Party increased its number of seats in parliament and continued to demand unrestricted independence.
Two members of the “Black Cadre” group were sentenced to death in 1977, accused of participating in armed anti-colonialist actions. The executions sparked a wave of protests and once again the British troops intervened. The Minister of Municipal Affairs – including racial issues – was forced to step down, but instead was appointed head of the Bermuda Regiment, a corps that was very actively involved in the repression.
The Labor Party – and other more radical movements – began to gain supporters among the locals.
In 1979, a constitutional conference was convened in Bermuda. The parties failed to reach agreement on representation in parliament and on the voting age, but it was agreed to limit the participation of foreign voters. The reform came into force in December of that year.
In 1980 and 1983, the Unity Party again won the elections, although the opposition increased its representation in parliament. The dominance of the unity party delayed the country’s independence when the government pointed out that the majority were not supporters of independence.
The strategic location of the islands in the Atlantic explains in part the presence of the British army.
The Unity Party’s John Swan was re-elected as prime minister in 1989 and his party gained 23 seats in the advisory assembly. In doing so, they maintained the slim lead to the Labor Party, which achieved 15 seats; a seat went to the center party of the National Liberals, while the independent Environment Party also obtained a seat in parliament.
During 1989, unemployment rose by 0.5% and in 1990 by 2%. Employment increased by 3.1% in the industrial sector. The severe economic downturn experienced in the United States continued to hurt tourism in the first months of 1992. London rejected a plan for territorial independence.
Lord Waddington was appointed Governor-General in 1992. The economic crisis led to the closure of the French naval base and a cut in staff on the North American aircraft base.
The intense, illicit drug trafficking in 1993 led to rising economic crime. In the same year, measures were taken to control the off-shore activities. The high population density has also caused a growing interest in environmental issues.
Irving Pearman was elected Prime Minister after the October 5, 1993 election. The unity party retained the majority in parliament, but the Labor Party continued to record progress, gaining 18 seats in parliament.
In August, a referendum on independence was held. The result was negative and the island is a British colony.
After David Saul’s resignation in March 1997, Pamela Gordon took office as prime minister. In June Thorold Masefield was appointed new governor. In the November 1998 elections, the Labor Party got 54% of the vote and 26 seats in parliament, while the Unity Party had to settle for 44% and 14 seats. The other parties got less than 1% of the vote and got no seats.
In September 1999, Hurricane Gert hit Bermuda at a speed of 120 km/h. The extensive rainfall caused floods, destroyed buildings and infrastructure.
After failing to carry out executions for 22 years, in December 1999, the government abolished the death penalty.
Governor Masefield left the country on November 28, 2001, after his 4-year term expired. A larger crowd attended the farewell ceremony. Until the new governor, Sir John Vereker’s arrival in April 2002, Tim Gurney held the function temporarily.
A constitutional reform in March 2003 reduced the number of seats in parliament from 40 to 36. In December, a reform of the Education Act was implemented, which makes parents responsible for their children’s behavior at school and sets a fine for violations. The Black Alliance, an organization working with the rights of the African-American people, criticized the reform for its discriminatory content. It is designed to especially hit the poorest, as it is used only in the public education system predominantly used by the working class and by the African-American population.
In September, the worst hurricane in 40 years hit Bermuda, leaving devastation and chaos in its wake. Hurricane Fabian reached wind speeds of 200 km/h and waves at almost 10 m altitude. Hundreds of people from the low-lying areas had to be evacuated, but 4 died. Trees were toppled and power lines torn down. Satellite dishes and other equipment at the Meteorological Institute broke loose and were flushed into the sea. The houses were built to withstand hurricanes, but the electricity supply to 25,000 households was cut off and hospitals had to cope with their own generators.
In March 2004, a colony of 56 exotic snails was transferred to Regents Park Zoo in London to preserve the endangered species. The population of snails has reached a critical level due to snakes and ants. Bermuda’s Natural History Museum sought the help of experts in London when it was found that the population had reached a critical level. The snails come back to Bermuda when the livelihoods have been restored and the population has grown.
In a December 2005 report, the Pan-American Health Organization said that although HIV and AIDS are extremely prevalent in the Caribbean, there are “small lights on the horizon.” It is among other things the case in Bermuda, where, for the first time since the discovery of the virus, a reduction in the number of new cases has been observed.
Ewart Brown was appointed Prime Minister in October 2006. At the same time he assumed the post of Minister of Tourism and Transport. He is from the Progressive Labor Party and declared in June 2007 that the theme of independence will again be relevant in the 2009 election campaign. with Britain it does not.
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In October 2008, a North American judge ordered 17 Chinese prisoners released from the US concentration camp in Guantanamo. There was no evidence that they were involved in terrorist acts. However, the United States could not send the Chinese to China, as the Uighurs would also face persecution there. Brown now made a statement that a number of them should be welcome in Bermuda, where they would be granted citizenship. The statement provoked Britain who believed it was superior to such decisions and also provoked the country’s opposition. In June 2009, the United States sent 4 Uyghurs to Bermuda to Britain’s great regret. In 2013, they were still in Bermuda, but with significant problems as they were registered as stateless, unable to travel,
In December 2012, the PLP who had otherwise ruled Bermuda for 14 years lost the election to the conservative One Bermuda Alliance (OBA). The OBA received 51.7% of the vote. OBA leader Craig Cannonier became new prime minister.
In May 2014, Cannonier had to withdraw from the Prime Minister’s post. The media had revealed that his party in 2012 received US $ 300,000 in support from financier Nathan Landow. Landow wanted to build casinos in Bermuda. It was banned and the ban was confirmed by several referendums, but after the support of Landow, Cannonier declared that he thought parliament should decide the matter. Michael Dunkley assumed the post of prime minister and at the same time took over Cannonier’s post as chairman of the One Bermuda Alliance government party.
One Bermuda Alliance (OBA) lost its majority in parliament when two of its members in March 2017 signed out and became independent. The government therefore had to print new elections. The July election was a major defeat for the government as the OBA declined from 19 to 12 seats. The PLP, on the other hand, went 7 terms from 17 to 24. The defeat of the OBA forced Dunkley to step down as prime minister and at the same time resigned as chairman of his party. PLP formed government with Edward David Burt as prime minister.