The European continent does not have homogeneous characteristics, as disparities are present in several aspects such as natural landscapes, climate, politics and culture. The continent has several ways of being regionalized, one of which is classified in Western and Eastern Europe.
Some scholars on the subject, through spatial, economic and cultural analysis, carry out a classification of the continent in four distinct areas: Western, Northern, Central-Eastern and Southern Europe fall. Regionalization before and mainly after the Second World War generated an abstract frontier. This means the emergence of an ideological barrier between two groups of countries that make up the same continent.
With the decline of the USSR, and also of socialism, several autonomous republics that made up the Soviet territory emerged, however, independence did not guarantee an effective insertion in the market economy stemming from the legacy of the productive system of the planned economy that prevailed in the USSR, which failed to keep up with the other economies.
Northern Europe is located at the northern end of the continent. This area has the coldest climate in all European territory. The countries located in this part of Europe are: Norway, Sweden (Scandinavian peninsula), Denmark, in addition to the new Republics of the former Soviet Union – Latvia and Lithuania, Finland. These countries have the main economic activities in fishing and logging. This restriction is due to climatic conditions that compromise, for example, agricultural production.
Central-Eastern Europe is constituted by the group of countries of the former Soviet Union that had their independence. They have culturally great complexity and ethnic-cultural diversity, such as the Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary, in addition to Ukraine, Georgia and Azerbaijan.
Southern Europe is bathed by the Mediterranean Sea, located on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal, Spain and Greece are present in this region, which in history have been centers of dispersal of cultures. Portugal and Spain were responsible for unraveling the continents of Africa and, mainly, South America.
You can try Abbreviation Finder to get a complete list of initials and acronyms with Europe.
If you consider pursing a law degree and decide to study in Europe, then you’ve come to the right place. Here, we provide rankings for all law schools in Europe based on alumni reviews, graduate employment rate, faculty and student ratio, admissions acceptance rates, etc. In addition to the European rankings, you can also see where each school is ranked world wide.
From the following table, you can see the top five are from U.K.. They are: Oxford University, University of Cambridge, London School of Economics and Political Science, UCL, and King’s College London. In total, there are 34 law schools that are top ranked in the world. Among the remaining 107 programs, 15 are from Italy, 14 are from Germany, 13 are from Spain, 9 are from Netherlands and France respectively, 8 are from Switzerland, 7 are from Belgium, and the other 32 are from Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, and Sweden.
|Europe Rankings||World Rankings||Law School||Nation|
|1||2||University of Oxford||United Kingdom|
|2||3||University of Cambridge||United Kingdom|
|3||7||The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE)||United Kingdom|
|5||19||King’s College London||United Kingdom|
|6||25||Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne||France|
|8||29||The University of Edinburgh||United Kingdom|
|9||32||Queen Mary University of London||United Kingdom|
|12||41||University of Amsterdam||Netherlands|
|13||42||Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin||Germany|
|14||48||Durham University||United Kingdom|
|15||55||ETH Zurich – Swiss Federal Institute of Technology||Switzerland|
|16||56||European University Institute||Italy|
|17||57||Freie Universitaet Berlin||Germany|
|18||61||Lomonosov Moscow State University||Russia|
|21||65||Sapienza University of Rome||Italy|
|23||69||The University of Manchester||United Kingdom|
|24||70||University of Nottingham||United Kingdom|
|25||71||The University of Warwick||United Kingdom|
|27||74||Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin||Ireland|
|28||75||Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M)||Spain|
|29||76||Complutense University of Madrid||Spain|
|30||79||Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna||Italy|
|31||80||Universität Frankfurt am Main||Germany|
|33||82||University of Vienna||Austria|
|34||83||Université catholique de Louvain (UCLouvain)||Belgium|
|35||84||Universite libre de Bruxelles||Belgium|
|36||85||University Paris 2 Panthéon-Assas||France|
|37||86||University College Dublin||Ireland|
|38||87||University of Bristol||United Kingdom|
|39||88||University of Geneva||Switzerland|
|41||90||University of Glasgow||United Kingdom|
|42||91||University of Oslo||Norway|
|43||95||University of Zurich||Switzerland|
|45||101||Cardiff University||United Kingdom|
|46||103||Erasmus University Rotterdam||Netherlands|
|48||117||Queen’s University Belfast||United Kingdom|
|51||122||Universidad Autónoma de Madrid||Spain|
|52||123||University of Navarra||Spain|
|53||126||Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore||Italy|
|54||127||University of Milan||Italy|
|55||128||Universitat de Barcelona||Spain|
|57||130||Universitat Pompeu Fabra||Spain|
|58||133||University College Cork||Ireland|
|59||134||University of Birmingham||United Kingdom|
|60||138||University of Groningen||Netherlands|
|61||139||University of Helsinki||Finland|
|62||140||University of Leeds||United Kingdom|
|63||144||University of St.Gallen (HSG)||Switzerland|
|65||148||Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam||Netherlands|
|66||150||Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster||Germany|
|67||154||Central European University||Hungary|
|68||162||National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE University)||Russia|
|70||166||Saint Petersburg State University||Russia|
|71||167||SOAS University of London||United Kingdom|
|72||172||The University of Sheffield||United Kingdom|
|73||173||Universidad de Sevilla||Spain|
|74||177||Università di Padova||Italy|
|75||178||University of Rome “Tor Vergata”||Italy|
|76||179||University of Trento||Italy|
|77||180||University of Cologne||Germany|
|78||181||Université de Fribourg||Switzerland|
|79||182||Université de Strasbourg||France|
|80||184||University of Antwerp||Belgium|
|81||185||University of Basel||Switzerland|
|82||186||University of Bern||Switzerland|
|83||188||University of Essex||United Kingdom|
|84||191||University of Kent||United Kingdom|
|85||192||University of Lausanne||Switzerland|
|86||193||University of Leicester||United Kingdom|
|87||194||University of Lisbon||Portugal|
|88||195||University of Liverpool||United Kingdom|
|89||199||University of York||United Kingdom|
|90||200||Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)||Belgium|
|92||205||Copenhagen Business School||Denmark|
|93||206||Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen||Germany|
|94||208||University of Göttingen||Germany|
|97||215||Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO University)||Russia|
|98||217||National University of Ireland Galway||Ireland|
|99||218||Newcastle University||United Kingdom|
|100||220||Oxford Brookes University||United Kingdom|
|101||221||Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn||Germany|
|102||223||Swansea University||United Kingdom|
|103||228||University of Granada||Spain|
|104||230||University of Salamanca||Spain|
|105||231||University of Florence||Italy|
|106||232||University of Turin||Italy|
|107||233||Università degli studi Roma Tre||Italy|
|108||234||Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona||Spain|
|109||235||Universitat de Valencia||Spain|
|111||237||Université de Montpellier||France|
|112||238||Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense||France|
|113||240||University of Aberdeen||United Kingdom|
|114||242||University of Bergen||Norway|
|115||244||University of Coimbra||Portugal|
|116||245||The University of Exeter||United Kingdom|
|117||247||University of Southampton||United Kingdom|
|118||248||University of Warsaw||Poland|
|119||250||WU (Vienna University of Economics and Business)||Austria|
|120||253||Aristotle University of Thessaloniki||Greece|
|121||254||Birkbeck, University of London||United Kingdom|
|122||256||Charles University||Czech Republic|
|123||257||City, University of London||United Kingdom|
|124||266||Mykolas Romeris University||Lithuania|
|125||267||National and Kapodistrian University of Athens||Greece|
|127||274||Universidad Pontificia Comillas||Spain|
|128||277||University of Genoa||Italy|
|129||278||University of Naples – Federico II||Italy|
|130||279||University of Pisa||Italy|
|133||284||University of Deusto||Spain|
|134||287||Université de Liège||Belgium|
|135||288||University of Limerick||Ireland|
|136||289||University of Ljubljana||Slovenia|
|137||290||University of Luxembourg||Luxembourg|
|138||293||University of Strathclyde||United Kingdom|
|139||294||University of Sussex||United Kingdom|
|140||295||University of Tartu||Estonia|
|141||299||University of Turku||Finland|
To see all countries in the Europe continent, just visit Countryaah.
Gibraltar, British colony on a limestone cliff at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance to the Mediterranean; 6.5 km2, 29,000 residents (2015). The east side of the 426 m high peninsula is steep. On the evenly sloping west side down towards Bahía de Algericas is the capital, Gibraltar, with the harbor protected behind large piers.
Gibraltar is connected to Spain by a low, narrow sand bar, La Línea. Here is the colony’s airport. The peninsula has only a few deposits of groundwater, which is why water supply solved by collecting rainwater. Banking, finance and insurance, as well as e-commerce, are of economic importance.
Gibraltar is a sought-after excursion destination for day tourists, and arrangements are made, among other things. bus trips from southern Spanish resort towns. Customs control is thorough, so waiting time must be expected. After passing the customs checkpoint, the road leads into the city of Gibraltar across the airport runway, which is cordoned off with barriers.
The city of Gibraltar is reminiscent of a small English provincial town with small shops and pubs. Only in the new district by the harbor is there a large supermarket (2017).
Gibraltar’s biggest attraction is the cliff itself with the associated nature reserve Upper Rock Nature Reserve at an altitude of just over 400 m, which inhabited by a colony of Berber monkeys (macaques) and over 300 bird species. The Upper Rock Nature Reserve can be reached via small minibuses or by cable car.
Of other attractions, e.g. mention the tunnel system and the stalactite cave St. Michael’s Cave in the Rock, a large cannon, 100 Tonne Gun, from 1870, reminiscent of the former guarding of the Strait of Gibraltar, a Moorish castle complex and Europe’s southernmost mosque.
The area, called Calpe in antiquity, was considered in ancient mythology as one of Hercules ‘ two pillars; the other was Abila (now Jabal Musa) in North Africa.
When the Arabs invaded the Iberian Peninsula 710-11, the area was named Jabal Tariq ‘Mountain of Tariq’ after the commander Tariq. Gibraltar was then under Moorish rule until in 1462 it was conquered by Christian Spain. The English occupied Gibraltar in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession, and at the Peace of Utrecht in 1713, British ownership of the area was recognized.
Spain has made numerous attempts at a recapture, all without success. In 1969, General Francisco Franco closed the border and stopped all communication between Spain and Gibraltar; a referendum in 1967 had yielded a large majority for continued affiliation with Britain. In 1985, all border restrictions were lifted, and in 1993, Spain and the United Kingdom resumed negotiations on the area.
In 2002, Britain proposed sharing sovereignty over Gibraltar with Spain. However, the proposal met with strong opposition from the population, who demanded a vote on the matter.
The British naval base
The British established Gibraltar as a naval base shortly after the conquest in 1704 and expanded and strengthened it until the end of World War II. The naval base consolidated Britain’s dominance as a naval power; with Gibraltar not only did they have the key to the Mediterranean with control of the Strait of Gibraltar, they also had a strong base between hereditary enemy France’s two major naval ports, Brest and Toulon, by which the French navy was effectively divided.
With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, the Mediterranean became a major route between Europe and the East, and Britain could now protect its own shipping from Gibraltar and the other strong Mediterranean base in Malta and control other states’ shipping on the colonies in the East.
During the two world wars, Gibraltar was a very important base for the Allies, but due to the post-war relinquishment of the colonies in the East and the sharp reduction of the British navy, Gibraltar has lost its strategic importance.
The origin of man
In Gibraltar, two Neanderthal skulls have been found
The find of one skull was published in 1848 and is thus one of the earliest finds of ancient humans. It is about a young adult, probably a woman, with a brain volume of approximately 1270 cm 3, which is believed to have lived during the last interglacial period (Eem, 130,000-150,000 years before now).
The second skull was found in 1926 just 350 m from the first site. Despite the size of 1400 cm 3, it originates from a three- or four-year-old child, presumably from the beginning of the last ice age.