According to Proexchangerates, Turkey borders the Black Sea to the north, the Levantine Sea to the south and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Bosphorus and Dardanelles waterways connect the Black and Aegean Seas. At the same time, they separate European Turkey from Asian. European Turkey borders Greece in the west and Bulgaria in the north. Asiatic Turkey (Anatolia) borders in the northeast with Georgia and Armenia , in the east with Iran , in the south with Iraq and Syria.
Besides a small part of Europe, Turkey includes the peninsula of Asia Minor and extends in the east to the Ararat highlands. It belongs (with the exception of a small part of the Upper Mesopotamian table country in Southeast Anatolia) to the Eurasian chain mountain belt.
The highlands of Inner Anatolia, which are surrounded by mountains, are largely covered by early Tertiary strata and young volcanic rocks. It rises from an average of 800 m in the west to over 1,200 m in the east, includes depressions without drainage (including the Tuz Gölü Basin, Konya Basin) and is overlooked by mountain ranges with volcanoes (in the volcanic ejecta of the Erciyas Dağı , des Hasan Dağı and Melendiz Dağı created the cave churches of Göreme). The highlands are framed by the Pontic Mountains in the north (Kaçkar Mountains up to 3,937 m) and by the Taurus in the south (Ala Dağ with the Demirkazık 3 756 m) or east (Cilo Dağı 4 116 m) and from the western Anatolian mountains (Honaz Dağı 2 528 m). The Taurus and Pontic Mountains come close to one another on the upper Euphrates River and form a largely volcanic high mountain region in the east with the Ararat highlands, with depressions (Lake Van Basin) with the highest elevation in Turkey, the Ararat (5 137 m).
To the north of the Dardanelles , the Sea of Marmara and the Bosphorus , the Thracian hull area joins with low mountain ranges in the north and south. The connection with Europe was interrupted in the Quaternary by the collapse of the Marmara Sea and the flooding of the former river valleys of the Bosporus and Dardanelles. Western Anatolia is cut up by rift valleys and faces the heavily indented Aegean coast.
There are frequent earthquakes in Turkey (earthquakes near İzmir and Gediz 1970, Burdur and Bingöl 1971, Muradiye in the province of Van 1976, Erzurum 1983, Erzincan 1992, Dinar 1995, Adana 1998, Gölcük / İzmit / Adapazarı 1999, Bingöl2003, Erciş 2011, Bodrum 2017). The regions along the North Anatolian main fault are particularly affected.
The climate largely determines the vegetation. Forest covers around 15% of the area, has been severely degraded due to uncontrolled logging and overgrazing and occurs only in more humid peripheral areas and at higher altitudes. Mediterranean vegetation (maquis and pines) can be found on the Aegean Sea and in the West and Middle Taurus. The Black Sea region has almost central European trains (beeches, firs). Sub-Mediterranean dry forests grow on the Taurus chains in the south, and juniper , oak and pine forests grow on the edges of the mountains.
EU-Turkey Agreement, name for an agreement reached on March 18, 2016 to end irregular migration from Turkey to the European Union. After the adoption of a joint action plan on November 29, 2015 and an EU-Turkey declaration of March 7, 2016, the EU-Turkey Agreement introduced further measures to cope with the situation since 2015 against the background of the Syrian civil war the escalating refugee and migration crisis. After that, i.a. all migrants arriving irregularly from Turkey to the Greek islands are returned to Turkey in compliance with EU and international law. For every Syrian repatriated, another Syrian from Turkey will be resettled in the European Union. Turkey undertakes to take the necessary measures to ensure that no new illegal migration routes from Turkish soil to the EU emerge. After the end or the lasting decline of irregular migration, the EU member states will activate a voluntary admission program for humanitarian reasons. The EU is providing Turkey with a further € 3 billion for refugee projects by 2018 after exhausting € 3 billion that has already been promised. In addition, once certain requirements have been met, the visa requirement for Turkish citizens is lifted. The expansion of the customs union will be continued and Turkey’s EU accession process will be revitalized. At the same time, Turkey and the EU member states are striving to improve the humanitarian conditions in Syria in order to reduce the number of refugees.
Adana, provincial capital in southern Anatolia, 23 m above sea level, (2018) 1.71 million residents.
Fifth largest city in Turkey, in Çukurova; 3 universities; Regional museum with archaeological finds; the most important branches of industry are textile, chemical fiber, food, cigarette and building materials industries; international Airport.
The most important architectural monument is the 310 m long Roman Taș Köprü (German stone bridge) with 19 bridge arches, built by Emperor Hadrian (2nd century AD, often renewed), over the up to the 1970s (since then the new Seyhan Bridge to the north) all traffic rolled; Great Mosque Ulu Cami (1541; black and white marble facade) with the mausoleum of the founder family Ramazanoğlu.
The city, probably a Hittite foundation (14th century BC?), Dominated the trade routes from Asia Minor through the Cilician Porte to Syria as a bridgehead on the Seyhan.