World Heritages in Spain Part III

By | August 30, 2021

Roman fortifications of Lugo (World Heritage)

Late antiquity, from the 2nd / 3rd centuries The city wall around the Galician city of Lugo, which dates back to the 19th century, is one of the few Roman fortifications that have been completely preserved. The curtain wall is about 2 km long, between 8 and 12 m thick and has massive semicircular bastions and 85 towers.

Roman fortifications of Lugo: facts

Official title: Late Roman fortifications of Lugo
Cultural monument: The city wall of Lugo, clad with slate and granite, was built as part of a defense system consisting of a moat, wall and rampart; 2,117 m long, 4.20–7 m thick, 8–12 m high, 71 (originally 85 or 86) semicircular or square towers integrated into the wall, 46 of which have been completely preserved; ten city gates (originally five, five new ones built between 1853 and 1921); six entrances (originally at least 16); from the 16th century to 1953 construction of numerous buildings and sheds directly adjacent to the wall; 1972 demolition of the more than 1,000 extensions, then restoration of the wall; 1985–1990 some watchtowers partially collapsed
Continent: Europe
Country: Spain
Location: Lugo northeast of Vigo
Appointment: 2000
Meaning: Very well preserved example of a late Roman fortification

Roman fortifications of Lugo: history

24/23 BC Chr. Roman foundation of the city of Lucus Augusti
260-337 Construction of the walls to defend the city against the so-called “barbarians”
460 Conquest of the city by the Swebes
585 Conquest of the city by the Visigoths
740 Lugo to the Kingdom of Asturias
700-1000 Repeated attacks by the Moors
19th century Carlist Wars

Elche palm grove (World Heritage)

According to physicscat, El Palmeral in Elche, southwest of Alicante, is the largest date palm plantation in Europe with around 170,000 specimens. The Moors started planting with complex irrigation systems in the year 700.

Elche palm grove: facts

Official title: Elche palm grove
Cultural monument: Area of ​​5.1 km², of which 1.5 km² within the city and 3.6 km² at various locations in the vicinity of Elche; Presumably by the Moors from 700 systematically planted (date) palm plantations, supplied by an elaborate irrigation system; also after the expulsion of the Moors (1502) and Moriscos (1609) further cultivation of palm trees; in the course of industrialization and the expansion of the city at the end of the 19th century. from the middle of the 20th century various measures to preserve the palm groves; at the 1997 census, there were 61,454 palm trees within the city and 119,684 palm trees in the surrounding area
Continent: Europe
Country: Spain
Location: Elche and surroundings
Appointment: 2000
Meaning: Unique testimony to Arab agriculture on the European continent

Elche palm grove: history

1100-800 BC Chr. Settlement of the Phoenicians in the region, probably importation of palm trees
711 Displacement of the Visigoths from Spain by the Moors
1150 Description of the irrigation system in Elche by the Arab geographer Idrisi
1502 Expulsion of the Moors
1603-40 Construction of a dam to supply the irrigation system
1884 Construction of the railway line across the palm area, as a result of the industrial boom in the region
1920 Commitment of the citizens of the city for the preservation of the palm groves
1933 First law to protect palm trees is passed
1986 Palm groves under nature protection
1991 Establishment of a research station for the scientific investigation of the Phoenix Iberica palm species

Tarragona (World Heritage)

Already in 218 BC experienced a heyday. The city was conquered by the Romans in the first and second centuries AD, when it became one of the most important cities of the Roman Empire through the initiative of Emperor Augustus. Remnants of the monumental city wall, representative buildings such as the theater, forum, circus, triumphal arch and aqueduct as well as sacred sites are reminiscent of the history of the ancient metropolis.

Tarragona (World Heritage)

Tarragona: facts

Official title: Archaeological Ensemble of Tárraco (Tarragona)
Cultural monument: Ruins of magnificent and administrative buildings from Roman times, Roman city wall, »Cyclops wall«, with city gates (built in the 3rd century BC on the foundations of an old Iberian wall, 1,000 m long, up to 10 m high, in the Subsequently rebuilt several times); Provincial Forum (1st century BC, seat of the Roman provincial administration); Roman circus (20,000 seats); pillar-lined trading forum with Curia; Roman theater, amphitheater (102 x 130 m); early Christian necropolis (3rd – 6th centuries); Surroundings include: aqueduct (217 m long, two-story with 25 arches or 11 arches; part of a 35 km long aqueduct); Tomb of the Scipions (1st century AD, 8 m high tower with two relief figures); Médol quarries; early Christian mausoleum of Centcelles (4th / 5th century, mosaic dome); Roman villas of Els Munts; Triumphal Arch of Berá (1st / 2nd / century AD,
Continent: Europe
Country: Spain
Location: Tarraco and surroundings
Appointment: 2000
Meaning: Outstanding example of a Roman trading and administrative city in the Roman province

Tarragona: history

3000 BC Chr. First settlements
from 1000 BC Chr. Phoenicians, Greeks and Celts in the region
218 BC Chr. During the 2nd Punic War the city was conquered by the Romans under Scipio d. Ä.
from 200 BC Chr. Tarraco the most important base of the Romans on the Iberian Peninsula, 30,000 inhabitants
27 BC Chr. Capital of the newly created province of Hispania Tarraconensis
3rd century The fall of the Roman Empire, the fall of the city
475 Conquest of the city by the Visigoths
713-14 Conquest of the city by the Moors

Romanesque churches in the Vall de Boí (World Heritage)

The early Romanesque churches from the 11th and 12th centuries in the High Pyrenees are an example of cultural exchange in the Middle Ages. Some have been used continuously since their inception.

Romanesque churches in the Vall de Boí: facts

Official title: Romanesque churches in the Vall de Boí
Cultural monument: Nine almost unchanged Romanesque churches, some of them richly painted, in the seven villages of the Vall de Boí valley in the Catalan High Pyrenees: “Sant Feliú” in the Barruera with extensions (14th century); “Sant Joan de Boí” in Boí; “Santa María” and “Sant Climent” with a six-story bell tower in Taüll; “L’Assumpcio” with a Gothic tower in Coll; “Santa Maria” in Cardet; “La Nativitat” with a baroque altar (16th – 18th century) and the “Sant Quirc” hermitage in Durro; “Santa Eulàlia” in Erill-la-Vall; History of church building and villages largely unknown
Continent: Europe
Country: Spain
Location: Vall de Boi, Catalonia
Appointment: 2000
Meaning: Testimony to the cultural exchange in medieval Europe

Romanesque churches in the Vall de Boí: history

before 1000 Settlement of the valley
1050-1150 Construction of the churches
10/11 Dec 1123 Inauguration of the two churches in Taüll
1920 “Rediscovery” of the churches by an antique dealer
from 1921 Partial replacement of the frescoes in the churches with copies
1952 Construction of the first paved road into the valley