Geography of Allegany County, New York

By | April 1, 2024

Allegany County, located in the western part of the state of New York, is characterized by its diverse geography, rolling hills, and rich natural resources. From its picturesque countryside and tranquil lakes to its vibrant communities and historic landmarks, Allegany County offers a wide range of attractions and opportunities for residents and visitors alike. See topschoolsintheusa for information about Rochester City, New York.


Allegany County covers an area of approximately 1,034 square miles, making it one of the larger counties in New York by land area. It is bordered by Livingston County to the north, Steuben County to the west, and Cattaraugus County to the south. The county seat is Belmont, while other communities include Wellsville, Cuba, and Alfred.

The geography of Allegany County is characterized by its rolling hills, wooded areas, and fertile valleys, which are traversed by several rivers and streams. The county is part of the Appalachian Plateau region and is located within the Allegheny River watershed.


Allegany County experiences a humid continental climate, with four distinct seasons marked by warm summers and cold winters. Average high temperatures in the summer months typically range from the upper 70s to low 80s Fahrenheit, while winter highs average in the 20s and 30s.

The region’s climate is influenced by its inland location and its proximity to the Great Lakes, which can result in significant temperature variations and weather extremes. Precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year, with moderate rainfall in the spring and fall months and occasional snowfall in the winter.

Rivers and Waterways:

Allegany County is home to several rivers and waterways, which provide habitat for fish and wildlife and support a variety of recreational activities. The Genesee River, one of the major rivers in the region, flows from south to north through the county and is popular for fishing, canoeing, and kayaking.

In addition to the Genesee River, Allegany County is also home to several smaller rivers and streams, including the Canaseraga Creek, the Oil Creek, and the Little Genesee Creek. These waterways meander through the county’s valleys and forests, providing opportunities for outdoor exploration and relaxation.

Lakes and Reservoirs:

Allegany County is dotted with numerous lakes and reservoirs, which offer opportunities for fishing, boating, swimming, and other water sports. Some of the largest lakes in the county include Cuba Lake, Rushford Lake, and Keeney Swamp.

In addition to natural lakes, Allegany County is also home to several reservoirs and impoundments, including the Belfast Reservoir and the Wellsville Reservoir. These water bodies provide habitat for fish and wildlife and offer scenic beauty amidst the county’s rural landscapes.

Parks and Natural Areas:

Allegany County is home to several parks and natural areas, which offer opportunities for outdoor recreation and relaxation. The Allegany State Park, located primarily in neighboring Cattaraugus County, features over 65,000 acres of protected wilderness, including hiking trails, camping facilities, and scenic overlooks.

In addition to Allegany State Park, Allegany County is also home to several county parks and recreation areas, including the Moss Lake Wildlife Management Area and the Phillips Creek Wildlife Management Area. These parks provide opportunities for hiking, birdwatching, and wildlife viewing, as well as camping and picnicking in designated areas.

Agriculture and Farmland:

Agriculture is an important industry in Allegany County, with fertile soils and a favorable climate that support a variety of crops and livestock. The county’s agricultural economy is based primarily on dairy farming, corn, soybeans, and hay production.

Farmers markets and roadside stands offer locally grown produce and agricultural products, including fresh fruits and vegetables, honey, and maple syrup. Agriculture is also an important part of the county’s cultural heritage, with many families passing down farming traditions and techniques through generations.

Cultural Heritage:

Allegany County has a rich cultural heritage, shaped by its history as a center of Native American culture, European settlement, and agricultural development. The county is home to several historic sites and landmarks, including the Angelica Park Circle Historic District and the Allegany County Courthouse.

The region is also known for its annual festivals and events, which celebrate the county’s cultural heritage and agricultural traditions. The Allegany County Fair, held each summer in Angelica, features livestock shows, agricultural exhibits, carnival rides, and live entertainment, drawing visitors from across the region.


In conclusion, Allegany County, New York, offers a diverse array of landscapes, outdoor recreational opportunities, and cultural attractions. From its rolling hills and tranquil lakes to its vibrant communities and historic landmarks, the county provides something for everyone to enjoy. Whether exploring a state park, attending a local festival, or sampling fresh produce at a farmers market, there is always something new to discover in Allegany County.