Brief History of Missouri

By | May 19, 2022

Population: 6,010.688 thousand people (2011)
Area: 180533.0 sq. km

According to, the 24th state of the federation, Missouri, is located in the Midwest of the United States. Its capital is Jefferson City and its major cities are Kansas City and St. Louis. In terms of land area, Missouri is ranked 21st in the state. The western part of the state shares borders with Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, the northern territories border with Iowa, in the east – with Tennessee, Kentucky and Illinois, in the south – with Arkansas.

In the south of the state is the limestone plateau of the Ozarks. The relief is conditioned by the river valleys of the Mississippi in the east, the Missouri in the center and in the northwest. The capital city is a major highway and railway junction. There are two international air ports on its territory. In 1803, the lands of the modern state, which at that time were part of the province of Louisiana, were purchased by the United States from France.

The Missouri territory became part of the state in the late summer of 1821. At the moment, the state has a Constitution, which was adopted in 1945 and is the fourth in a row. In the middle of the 19th century, farms and plantations were developed in Missouri, where slave labor was used. In 1854, Missourians volunteered to take part in the Kansas Civil War.

At the end of November 1861, another government was formed in the state, which decided to withdraw from the federation and join the separatists. However, the plans were not destined to come true, and order resumed again in the state. At the end of the Civil War, the state became a transit territory through which most of the cargo was transported to the Pacific coast. With the development of rail lines, the cities of Kansas City and St. Louis gained importance.

On the lands of Missouri there are significant mineral deposits, including limestone and coal. One of the priority places in the country is occupied by enterprises for the production of lime in the state. Here are located large-scale production of the chemical, printing and food industries, as well as the production of transport and electrical equipment. In agricultural areas, they are engaged in animal husbandry, the cultivation of soybeans and grain crops.


Jefferson City is the capital of Missouri and the county seat of Cole County. It is located on the right bank of the river that gave the state its name, in the northern part of the low, hilly plateau of the Ozarks. Often Jefferson City is referred to as Jeff City or simply Jeff. See Missouri counties.

In the pre-Columbian era, representatives of the culture of the builders of the mounds lived here, but immediately before the arrival of the Europeans, the Osage tribes inhabited this area. The official date of the founding of the city is considered to be 1821, when the capital of Missouri was transferred here from St. Louis. However, a settlement appeared here a little earlier, and was called Loman. It was made the capital, apparently, because of its location in the center of the Missouri territory. Then it was renamed in honor of the 3rd US President Thomas Jefferson. For a long time, the settlement that became a city in 1839 was an ordinary trading place halfway between Kansas City and St. Louis. In the year of the Civil War, Jefferson City was occupied by US troops, although the population was predominantly supportive of the Confederacy.

Jefferson City is a typical state capital. Here, about 40% of the working population works in the public sector. There is also a university, and cultural institutions, and sports arenas. The sights of Jefferson City include administrative buildings: the Missouri Capitol, the state courthouse. Of particular note is the old Missouri State Penitentiary, built in 1836. There are many American “celebrities” among its prisoners.

The Jefferson City area is sometimes called the Missouri Rhineland due to the fact that once German immigrants planted vineyards here, which still exist and are considered a tourist attraction.


Population: 117.213 thousand people (2011)
Area: 202.5 sq. km
Founded: 1827
Time zone: UTC-6, summer UTC-5
Altitude: 315 m

The city of Independence is located on the coast of the Missouri River in the western part of the state. It is a satellite of Kansas City and part of the conurbation of the same name. The city area lies in two counties – Jackson and Clay. The line of Independence is crossed by several historic roads, thanks to which it received its unofficial name “Royal City of Ways”. Harry Truman, the 33rd President of the United States, is considered its most famous citizen. He spent most of his life in the city and was buried here. Independence is also known as the birthplace of the Latter Day Saint Movement.

The area where the city is now located, before the arrival of Europeans, served as the habitat of the Siouan peoples, in particular the Osage Indians. The settlement founded here only after the Louisiana Purchase became owned by the United States. Previously, the local area was a French possession in North America. Growing from a small settlement, Independence became a city in 1827. In a short period of time, it has transformed into one of the most important frontier cities.

In 1831, the temple of Lot was founded in the city. It was founded by the leader of the Latter Day Saint Movement, Joseph Smith. Two years later, the group was forced to leave the city due to a conflict with the local population. But this did not end the disagreement. As a result, the Mormon War broke out on this basis. Over time, in 1867, such movements as the Church of Christ and the Community of Christ returned to the city. In the modern city there are many cultural and educational institutions, in particular, higher schools, colleges, universities, museums.

Brief History of Missouri