Category Archives: Europe

Rybinsk, Yaroslavl Region (Russia)

According to, Rybinsk is located 90 km northeast of Yaroslavl at the confluence of the Volga and Sheksna rivers. The city is known as the former capital of burlaks and is one of the points on the Golden Ring tourist route. Settlements on the site of the present city have been known since 1071.… Read More »

Italy Sightseeing

Olbia, Sardinia island (Italy) Olbia is located in the northeastern part of the island of Sardinia. In the distant past, it was an important Roman port. Now one of the two international airports in Sardinia is located here. The island itself is the second largest in Italy after Sicily. Not far from Olbia are the… Read More »

Best Time to Visit Cyprus

The most beautiful island on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea – Cyprus. Rich nature, sandy beaches, excellent service, mild climate, many attractions – all this disposes tourists to a pleasant and eventful vacation. The climate is favorable for health. The coldest air temperature in winter is 15 degrees Celsius. Each resort in Cyprus has… Read More »

10 Reasons to Go to Croatia

Croatia has the cleanest sea in Europe. According to topschoolsintheusa, Croatia has the cleanest sea in Europe. The number of beaches that have the “Blue Flag” is growing every year! Even neighbors Italians prefer to relax on the coasts of Croatia. It is unlikely that anyone will be able to accurately determine the color of… Read More »

Science and Culture of Russia

According to topschoolsintheusa, the origin and formation in Russia of modern forms of scientific activity and education are largely connected with the entire complex of transformations of the Petrine and post-Petrine eras. Characteristic of the 18th – early 19th centuries. the process of building the institutions of science (academies, universities, expeditions, libraries, collections, observatories, clinics,… Read More »

Geography of Iceland

General information about Iceland The official name is the Republic of Iceland (Ly.veidi. Island). An island state located in the northwestern part of the Atlantic Ocean. The area is 103 thousand km2, the population is 288 thousand people. (2002). The official language is Icelandic. The capital is Reykjavik (about 113 thousand people). Public holiday –… Read More »

Landmarks of Great Britain

The largest and most multiethnic kingdom is England. According to, the capital of England is London, this city is simply full of all kinds of attractions, which include world-famous historical sites and monuments. The city has the largest shops of well-known companies, and the nightlife of the capital is incomparable. There are more than… Read More »

Monte Carlo, France

“At a distance of one hour from Nice is the famous Monaco; there is a place called Monte Carlo where they play roulette… Never before have I seen so much gold and silver.” A.P. Chekhov In 1886, during the reign of Prince Charles III, around the Casino, which became famous throughout Europe, Monte Carlo was… Read More »

Italy Sources of Energy

The evolution of the energy balance is one of the fundamental elements to understand if and in what ways the economy of a country changes. From the end of the Second World War to the beginning of the 1970s, the Italian energy balance had evolved in the name of the inversion of the load diagram.… Read More »

Italy Literature – Renewal of Thought and Literary Art in the 18th Century Part II

Only Giambattista Vico, the great thinker who, pioneering modern idealism, supported the concept of the constructive synthesis of the spirit against the analytical and deductive method of Cartesian philosophy and in the  New Science drew from myths, from traditions, from laws, from language the guidelines of the universal course of society, conceived a new organic and coherent… Read More »

Italy Literature – The Great and the Minor Prose of the 16th Century Part II

Most of the moralists are Tuscan: Giambattista Gelli, author of the  Capricci del Bottaio  and della  Circe , arguments and dialogues that recommend that men submit to the dictates of reason and not to the whims of meaning; Monsignor Giovanni Della Casa, a fruitful writer in prose and verse, whose  Galateo  is one of the most graceful writings of the century; Anton Francesco… Read More »

Italy Catholic Reconstruction and State Reconstruction – The Counter-Reformation Part I

We are in the midst of the counter-reformation or, rather, of the counter-revolution; in the era of Catholic reform to curb the Protestant revolution. A fact of Christianity and catholicity is the counter-reform or counter-revolution: and the fact finds a confirmation in what had happened in the century. XIII, when equally the most lively religiosity had created reformist… Read More »

Norman Italy Kingdom and Municipalities Part II

Meanwhile, the municipal movement was progressing; the new institutional order was consolidated; new lower classes were urged to come forward and the liberation of the serfs, peasants or artisans, whatever they were, was accelerated; the countryside was also beginning to take on a new face; rural municipalities by the thousands; valvassori and cattani and also powerful lords, forced to swear… Read More »

Norman Italy Kingdom and Municipalities Part I

For several decades, this vast change, almost revolution, which took place in the peninsula from the Ionian to the Alps, found no serious obstacles on the part of the kingdom and the empire. No serious attempt to prevent the Norman conquest, nor the now too autonomous life of the cities to the detriment of the prince’s… Read More »

Italy Tectonics and Genesis Part II

Finally, on the Adriatic side, starting from Urbinate, an eastern area leans against the axial beam, composed of secondary lands from the Trias to the Cretaceous period, which ends, assuming a transversal course, in the Sabina mountains; tectonic bundle of folds and typical carriageways (Spoleto) whose directions, turning first in the meridian direction up to Monte Vettore,… Read More »

Italy Tectonics and Genesis Part I

According to IAMHIGHER.COM, Italy is a young land; on the contrary of Iberia, generated by a primordial nucleus that grew larger through the geological ages by successive additions, it arose mainly thanks to the most recent of the great orogenetic corrugations, the Alpine; the remains of the most ancient structures are, as far as the extension is… Read More »

Italy Fauna Part II

One of the best characterized regions is certainly the Alpine one. Here, in the thick of the high woods live those magnificent gallinaceous that are the grouse: the capercaillie ( Tetrao urogallus ), now rare and localized in Cadore, in Trentino, in Friuli and in some other sites of the Lombard and Venetian Alps, the francolin of mountain… Read More »

Italy Fauna Part I

The Italian fauna is rich and varied, although the climatic vicissitudes, the deforestation of large areas, the spread of crops and hunting have made the distribution area of ​​several species disappear or have reduced. Quaternary man knew the mammoth, the aurochs, the elk, the bison, the hippopotamus, the cave bear, the cave hyena, the gulo. The plains… Read More »

Italy Balance Sheet Between 1494 and 1559 Part II

Even the political balance of this troubled era does not end with the list of provinces that came into the hands of Spain. The long wars also had their fruitfulness. Not everywhere has the process of forming territorial states with their own governments and dynasties been disturbed and interrupted. Wars have provided opportunities and created resolved needs in… Read More »

Italy Balance Sheet Between 1494 and 1559 Part I

Thus ended a very fortunate age for the peninsula, which began in 1494: an age, in the opinion of contemporaries and posterity, ruinous and decadent for the Italian homeland, as well as the principle of major ruin and decadence. Collapse of dynasties, decline of economic activities, diversion or dispersion of men. There was, in Italian life,… Read More »

Europe to Conquer Italy – Francesco I and Carlo V Part II

As feared, Hadrian VI not only struck many petty interests in a city that, economically, was almost an appendage of the curia, but he isolated himself, estranged himself from Rome, did not deal with politics, something almost incomprehensible to the Romans, offended habits and deeply rooted feelings and tastes which constituted the Italian civilization of… Read More »

Europe to Conquer Italy – Francesco I and Carlo V Part I

Julius II had died, while by now those “barbarians” whom he wanted to expel from Italy, but who too vice versa recalled the things of Italy, dominated it. And Leo X of the Medici family, who succeeded him, juggled the various potentates, especially between France and Spain. Fluctuating and ambiguous policy, both because the situation is difficult… Read More »

Growing Political Decomposition of the Italy Peninsula Part III

Finally, according to ITYPETRAVEL.COM, the Muslims are, at the beginning of the century. XI, already all uprooted from the extreme of the peninsula. It can be said that over there all the Italian peoples and, through the intermediary of the popes and emperors, all of Christianity found themselves united in the effort against the infidels. It was the… Read More »

Growing Political Decomposition of the Italy Peninsula Part II

Despite the often grandiose intentions, the assiduous care of Italian things, the new or broader titles assumed, nothing solid and lasting build the Ottoni in Italy. Attempts in the south failed; Rome was always a condominium in which the emperor was valid only as long as his material presence in Rome lasted; the kingdom was always restless, owing… Read More »

Growing Political Decomposition of the Italy Peninsula Part I

Also around Rome, new disorders: and at the head, always the secular aristocracy. Tivoli rose up; the city of Rome rose up with Gregory of the counts of Tusculum. Emperor and pope had to flee in February 1001. Insurrections also in Tuscany, Ugo Marquis, the faithful supporter and friend of Otto III, died. Everything crumbled around the young gentleman… Read More »

Romania History Until 1862

Romania, officially România [romi nia], state in Southeast Europe with (2018) 19.5 million residents; The capital is Bucharest. According to Computerminus, today’s Romania essentially comprises the historical areas of the former Danube principalities of Moldova and Wallachia as well as Transylvania. Before 1862 and 1918/19 one can only speak of a history of the areas… Read More »

Romanian Literature

Romanian literature. Written Romanian literature was preceded by extensive folk poetry with a variety of genres: the poetry of love and lament, v. a. Doină, as well as the epic ballad (Miorița), in which motifs from pastoral life or history are processed. Satirical, religious and magical poetry and fairy tales were also richly developed. All… Read More »